- Armenian Literature, History, Religion in in Russian

Luigi Villari


[ page 13 ]


June 12, 1903.   Prince Golytzin confiscates property of Armenian Church.
July   Strikes at Baku and on the Transcaucasian Railway.
Aug.   General Von Wahl goes from St. Petersburg to Baku to inquire into the condition of the town, where General Odintzoff is Governor.
Oct.   Armenians attempt the life of Golytzin.
Jan. 1904.   Prince Nakashidze appointed Governor of Baku.
July   Golytzin departs from the Caucasus on leave, never to return. General Freze appointed acting Governor-General afterwards General Malama.
Dec.   Prince Nakashidze goes to St. Petersburg to confer with Golytzin, and returns soon after.
Jan. 14, 1905.   Golytzin relieved of his functions.
Feb. 19  

First outbreak of the Tartars against the Armenians at Baku (400 to 500 killed and wounded).

Feb. 22  

Order restored.

March   Small outbreak at Erivan.
May 18   Count Vorontzoff-Dashkoff (appointed Viceroy in February) arrives at Tiflis.
May 24   Prince Nakashidze murdered at Baku.
May 25   Outbreak at Nakhitchevan (300 killed and wounded in town and district). General Alikhanoff sent to restore order.
June 5-6   Second outbreak at Erivan (52 killed and wounded). Prince Napoleon appointed Governor-General of Erivan. Recalls Alikhanoff.
Aug. 29 to
Sept. 2
Outbreak at Shusha (300 killed and wounded, damages estimated at 5,000,000 roubles).

[ page 14 ]

Sept. 2-6, 1905.   Second outbreak at Baku (600 to 700 killed and wounded, damages 25,000,000 roubles.
Sept. 11   Massacre of Georgian Social Democrats by Cossacks in the Tiflis Town Hall.
Oct. 1   Third outbreak at Erivan.
Oct. 9   Bombs thrown at the Cossacks at Tiflis.
Oct. 28   Railway strike begins.
Oct. 30   Constitutional Manifesto.
Oct. 31   Social Democratic and Armenian Demonstration at Baku.
Nov. 1-4   Third outbreak at Baku.
Nov. 4-10  

Demonstration and riots at Tiflis.

Nov. 29 to
Dec. 3

Outbreak between Tartars and Armenians at Elizavetpol.

Dec. 1-4   Armeno-Tartar outbreak at Tiflis. Tartars from the country try to come into Tiflis. Fight with Armenians and Socialists. Troops intervene.
Dec. 28 to Political strike at Tiflis. Bombs thrown. Troops bombard houses. Fierce reaction. Massacre of railwaymen by troops.
Jan. 6, 1906
Jan.   Serious revolt in Georgia; ferocious repression by Cossacks and soldiers.


Table of contents
Cover and pp. 1-4 | Prefatory note | Table of contents (as in the book) | List of illustrations
“Chronological table of recent events in the Caucasus”
1. The Caucasus, its peoples, and its history | 2. Eastward ho! | 3. Batum
4. Kutais and the Georgian movement | 5. The Gurian “republic” | 6. Tiflis
7. Persons and politics in the Caucasian capital
8. Armenians, Tartars, and the Russian government
9. Baku and the Armeno-Tartar feud | 10. Bloodshed and fire in the oil city
11. The land of Ararat | 12. The heart of Armenia | 13. Russia's new route to Persia
14. Nakhitchevan and the May massacres | 15. Alexandropol and Ani
16. Over the frosty Caucasus | 17. Recent events in the Caucasus | Index



Source: Villari, Luigi. Fire and Sword in the Caucasus by Luigi Villari author of “Russia under the Great Shadow”, “Giovanni Segantini,” etc. London, T. F. Unwin, 1906
Provided by: Aram Arkun, Krikor and Clara Zohrab Information Center
Scanned by: Karen Vrtanesyan
OCR: Karen Vrtanesyan

No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed by any means without written permission of the owners of

See also:
The Flame of Old Fires by Pavel Shekhtman (in Russian)
Design & Content © Anna & Karen Vrtanesyan, unless otherwise stated.  Legal Notice